Major Exports & Imports
The country’s merchandise export earnings grew by 10.55 percent year-on-year to $40.53 billion in the immediate past fiscal year riding on a high volume of garment shipment in a favourable external business environment.
The earnings were 3.94 percent higher than the annual target of $39 billion in 2018-19. In 2017-18, Bangladesh exported goods worth $36.66 billion.
However, June recorded one of the lowest export receipts at $2.78 billion, which is also 5.27 percent less than that of the corresponding month in the previous fiscal year, according to Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) data released yesterday.
In June of 2017-18, Bangladesh’s export earnings were $2.93 billion.
June’s receipts were also 22.65 percent lower than the monthly target of $3.60 billion set by the government. In Bangladesh, the fiscal year is counted between July of a year and June of the next year.
Garment export earnings, which accounted for over 84 percent of the national exports, amounted to $34.13 billion, registering an 11.49 percent year-on-year growth.
Of the amount, $16.88 billion came from knitwear and $17.24 billion from woven garment products.
Earnings from apparel shipment were 4.57 percent higher than the target of $32.68 billion. Some $30.61 billion was earned in fiscal 2017-18.
“The earnings from June indicate that the future trend is not so good for the garment sector,” said Faisal Samad, vice-president of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), over the phone.
Although garment shipments grew by 11.49 percent, international retailers and brands are not paying higher prices while purchasing garment items from Bangladesh, he said.
However, Bangladesh is getting more work orders that shifted from China resulting from the US-China trade war, Samad said. Buyers are more confident as the image of the country’s garment sector has brightened a lot recently because of the remediation carried out as per requirements of the international community.
The country’s garment export to the US market, the single largest export destination for garment, grew more than 10 percent in recent months because of the trade war, he said.
“The exact value addition has not been reflected in the offered prices for Bangladeshi garment items by the international clothing retailers and brands although the cost of doing business is increasing every year for various reasons,” Samad said.
Moreover, an unhealthy price competition has been hurting the Bangladesh’s garment sector for many years as many small and medium factories have been receiving work orders for offering prices below the production cost only to keep factories running, he added.
Apart from apparel, some other sectors also fared well.
The shipment of frozen and live fish such as shrimp and crabs rose 1.58 percent to $500.4 million and that of agricultural products such as tea, vegetables, fruits, spices, dry food, and tobacco surged 34.92 percent to $908.96 million.
Pharmaceuticals, furniture, petroleum byproducts, plastic goods, ceramics, handicrafts, cotton, cotton products (yarn and wastes of fabrics), carpet, terry towel, footwear, wigs, and furniture performed better in the last fiscal year.
However, leather and leather goods and jute and jute goods continued their poor show. Leather and leather goods fetched $1.01 billion, down 6.06 percent year-on-year. This is largely because many tanneries that have shifted to the leather estate in Savar have not embarked on full-fledged production yet.
The sector is the only segment that had crossed the $1-billion export mark after garments last year. Exports of jute and jute goods, another important foreign currency earner, fell 20.41 percent year-on-year to $816.27 million.
The sector’s earnings are declining mainly because of higher use of jute goods like sacks in the domestic market and the anti-dumping duty slapped by India.
Home textiles, building materials, ships and bicycles also performed poorly.
Bangladesh Major Imports
The following product groups represent the highest dollar value in Bangladesh’s import purchases during 2019. Also shown is the percentage share each product category represents in terms of overall imports into Bangladesh.
- Machinery including computers: US$5.8 billion (11.5% of total imports)
- Cotton: $5.4 billion (10.8%)
- Mineral fuels including oil: $4.4 billion (8.7%)
- Electrical machinery, equipment: $3.2 billion (6.4%)
- Iron, steel: $2.9 billion (5.8%)
- Plastics, plastic articles: $2.2 billion (4.4%)
- Vehicles: $1.7 billion (3.5%)
- Manmade staple fibers: $1.6 billion (3.2%)
- Manmade filaments: $1.42 billion (2.8%)
- Knit or crochet fabric: $1.35 billion (2.7%)
Bangladesh’s top 10 imports represent about three-fifths (59.7%) of the overall value of its product purchases from other countries.
Iron and steel posted the fastest growth in cost among Bangladesh’s top 10 import categories, up by 4.8% from 2018 to 2019. The other top product category to appreciate year over year was manmade filaments, due to its 1.8% increase.
Leading the decreases among the top 10 Bangladeshi imports was cotton via its -21.3% drop year over year, ahead of the 21% decline for imported electrical machinery and equipment.
In 2019, Bangladeshi importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of machines including computers.
- Computers, optical readers: US$319.5 million (down -0.1% from 2018)
- Yarn wash/clean/iron machines: $268.1 million (down -17.5%)
- Sewing machines, related furniture: $234.6 million (down -17.1%)
- Liquid pumps and elevators: $233.1 million (up 23.8%)
- Temperature-change machines: $218.1 million (up 62.5%)
- Miscellaneous machinery: $211.9 million (down -60.9%)
- Knitting/stitching machines: $206.4 million (down -20.7%)
- Air or vacuum pumps: $204.7 million (down -5.6%)
- Vapour-based boilers: $197.7 million (down -8.9%)
- Centrifuges, filters and purifiers: $178.2 million (up 6.5%)
Among these import subcategories, Bangladeshi purchases of temperature-change machines (up 62.5%), liquid pumps and elevators (up 23.8%) then centrifuges, filters and purifiers (up 6.5%) grew from 2018 to 2019.
In 2019, Bangladeshi importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of cotton and related products.
- Cotton (uncarded, uncombed): US$1.7 billion (down -9.8% from 2018)
- Woven fabrics (85%+ cotton): $922.5 million (down -33.6%)
- Woven cotton fabrics: $886.4 million (down -20.5%)
- Woven fabrics (mixed): $761.6 million (down -10.5%)
- Yarn (85%+ cotton): $757.2 million (down -33.8%)
- Woven fabrics (under 85% cotton): $233 million (down -15.1%)
- Yarn (under 85% cotton): $92.9 million (down -26.2%)
- Other woven fabrics: $21.2 million (down -56.7%)
- Cotton (carded, combed): $3.4 million (down -73.1%)
- Cotton sewing thread: $994,000 (down -34.6%)
Among these import subcategories, Bangladeshi purchases of uncarded and uncombed cotton (down -9.8%), woven mixed fabrics (down -10.5%) then woven fabrics consisting of under 85% cotton (down -15.1%) declined at the slowest pace from 2018 to 2019.
In 2019, Bangladeshi importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of mineral fuels-related products.
- Processed petroleum oils: US$3.6 billion (down -12% from 2018)
- Electrical energy: $452.4 million (up 138.3%)
- Petroleum gases: $177.8 million (down -59.8%)
- Coal, solid fuels made from coal: $71.8 million (down -70.9%)
- Petroleum oil residues: $12.3 million (down -84.3%)
- Petroleum jelly, mineral waxes: $7.4 million (down -24.6%)
- Coke, semi-coke: $5.3 million (down -3.4%)
- Lignite: $4.8 million (down -29.2%)
- Coal tar oils (high temperature distillation): $2.6 million (up 0.9%)
- Distilled tar: $2.2 million (down -23.1%)
Among these import subcategories, Bangladeshi purchases of electrical energy (up 138.3%) and high temperature distilled coal tar oils (up 0.9%) grew at the fastest pace from 2018 to 2019.
In 2019, Bangladeshi importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of electronic equipment including consumer electronics.
- Phone system devices including smartphones: US$908 million (down -6.9% from 2018)
- Electric generating sets, converters: $268.5 million (down -49.3%)
- Electrical converters/power units: $259.4 million (down -32.3%)
- Insulated wire/cable: $204.4 million (down -20.1%)
- Electrical/optical circuit boards, panels: $152.4 million (down -26.6%)
- Unrecorded sound media: $140.9 million (down -19.4%)
- Electric motors, generators: $130.3 million (up 14.5%)
- TV/radio/radar device parts: $114.5 million (down -6.5%)
- TV receivers/monitors/projectors: $104.9 million (down -22.2%)
- Electric storage batteries: $104.2 million (down -19.1%)
Among these import subcategories, only Bangladeshi purchases of electric motors and generators (up 14.5%) grew from 2018 to 2019.